Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) <p>The Journal of Education, Humanities &amp; Science (JEHS) is an interdisplinary international journal devoted to the study of matters related to education, humanities, social science and natural science</p> <p>The main aim of the journal is to gather disseminate under a single cover a wide variety of research and discussing of fundamental concern to all those scholers who have an interest in education, humanities, social science and natural science</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) & University of Dar es Salaam en-US Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 1821-7427 Modelling Optimal Control of Heavy Alcohol Consumption on the Transmission Dynamics of HIV/AIDS <p>Unhealthy consumption of alcohol continues to be found everywhere in our<br>communities leading to behavioural and physiological effects on neuro-cognitive<br>function. This results into high-risk sexual behaviour mainly due to impaired decisionmaking capacity and impulsivity, a catalyst of HIV infection and ultimately AIDS. This<br>paper investigates the best control combination for HIV/AIDS pandemic in a<br>community with alcohol abuse problem. It proposes a compartmental deterministic<br>model for the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS in a community plagued with<br>alcohol abuse. The paper determines the implementation of optimal control<br>strategies involving reduction of new HIV cases through the ABC (abstinence, being<br>faithful, and use of condoms) campaign, treatment of alcohol abusers and prevention<br>of alcohol relapse using Pontryagin's maximum principle. Numerical simulations are<br>implemented using the forward-backward sweep method, and the pertinent results<br>are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. Based on performance, results<br>from numerical simulations depict that the best results are obtained when the three<br>strategies are used simultaneously.<br>Keywords: ; ; optimal control; ABC strategy; .</p> Gasper G. Mwanga Emmanuel Ongodia Kyambogo Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 2 Assessment of Heavy Metals in Bottom Ashes from Medical Waste Incinerators and their Associated Health Risks in Dar es Salaam <p>Bottom ashes originating from medical waste incineration contain heavy metals capable of<br>causing adverse effects to human beings and the environment. The main goal of this study<br>is to establish levels of heavy metals in bottom ashes from medical waste incinerators to<br>build a basis for the development of sustainable, safe, and efficient methods for healthcare<br>waste management. The study assessed the level of heavy metals in the bottom ashes of<br>thermally treated medical waste from six health care facilities in Dar es Salaam city,<br>Tanzania. Heavy metal concentrations were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma -<br>Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). While As, Cd and Hg were below detection limit,<br>Hg poses particular risk to public health since it may appear as vapour in the environment,<br>which can be inhaled by human beings. The average concentration of other heavy metals<br>followed the trend: Fe &gt; Zn &gt; Cr &gt; Ni &gt; Pb &gt; Mn &gt; Cu. All the metals investigated<br>exceeded the USEPA regulation on maximum permissible levels of heavy metals in good soil<br>quality, and hence classified as harmful and toxic. Therefore, there is a need to explore<br>environmentally friendly techniques for proper disposal of ash generated by incinerators,<br>or consider non-incineration techniques of medical waste management.<br><br></p> Julius Mbuna Honest Anicetus Josephat Saria Samwel Manyele Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 2 Ethoxylation and Polymerization of Cardanol Derived Bifunctional Monomers <p>Cardanol and its derivative; 3-(non-8-enyl)phenol (obtained by ethenolysis reaction of<br>cardanol) were ethoxylated via one-pot reaction with urea and ethylene glycol using<br>Na2CO3/ZnO as co-catalysts. The ethoxylates were later methoxycarbonylated using a<br>1,2-bis(ditertbutylphosphinomethyl)benzene (DTBPMB) modified palladium catalyst to<br>produce ethoxylated bifunctional monomers. Polymerization of these monomers by<br>heating in the presence of a standard polymerization catalyst, Ti(OBu)4, formed<br>oligomers that were plastic-like. Analysis of these oligomers by MALDI-TOF MS<br>indicated the condensation of up to nine monomer units</p> james mgaya Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 2 Bifurcation Analysis of Newcastle Disease Eco-epidemiological Model in the Presence of Vaccination: A Case of the Backyard Chicken <p>Newcastle is an infectious disease caused by the avian paramyxomovirus-1. It occurs<br>most frequently as a disease of Avians (e.g., chicken, ducks, pigeons, guinea fowls and<br>other wild birds) that acquire viruses from infected Avians or a contaminated<br>environment. In this paper, we present a deterministic eco-epidemiological model for<br>Newcastle disease transmission in backyard chicken population in the presence of<br>vaccination as a control measure to study the nature of the equilibrium points. The<br>analytical and numerical methods were rigorously presented. Mathematical analysis of<br>the equilibrium point revealed that the model exhibits forward bifurcation. The analysis<br>show that a disease-free equilibrium point is locally asymptotically stable for effective<br>reproduction number ???????? &lt; 1, and unstable when ???????? &gt; 1. On the other hand, the<br>endemic equilibrium point is stable when ???????? &lt; 1, and unstable otherwise. Furthermore,<br>the study revealed that increasing the vaccination rate leads to an increase in protective<br>immunity against Newcastle disease, and hence reduces the devastating effect of the<br>disease in a chicken population. The paper advises that stakeholders in backyard<br>chicken growers invest on intervention that ensures that effective reproduction number<br>is below a unit for successful control of the Newcastle disease.</p> furaha chuma Gasper G. Mwanga Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 2 A Bivariate Probit Model for Testing Joint Effect of Affordability and Desirability to Connect Electricity in Mtwara and Pwani, Tanzania <p>The objective of this study is to determine perceptions of joint effect of<br>affordability and desirability to connect electricity in a household to propose an<br>appropriate advocacy strategy for the regions of Mtwara and Pwani in Tanzania.<br>Bivariate probit model is used to analyse data involving 162 households.<br>Constructed Likert Scales of delightful and wary perceptions on oil- and gas-based<br>on three questions with Likert response formats are used as part of the<br>explanatory set of variables in the model. Marginal mean effects of the bivariate<br>probit model indicate that wary perceptions on the use of gas are statistically<br>significant at the 5% level for joint affordability to connect and the desirability to<br>connect electricity in own household. Since perceptions are usually rooted in the<br>culture of a relevant community and can be nurtured through education and<br>general information gathering, it is recommended that appropriate advocacy<br>programmes be mounted in Pwani and Mtwara regions.</p> Amina Suleiman Msengwa Deogratias Matayo Bengesi Rugaimukamu Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 2 The Influence of Economic Factors and Policies on Deforestation in Tanzania <p>In this paper we analysed the influence of economic factors and policy on the rate of<br>deforestation in Tanzania. A multiple linear regression model was formulated and the<br>effects of each factor on deforestation were tested. The ordinary least squares method was<br>used to estimate the model parameters. Correlation analysis revealed that per capita<br>income, per capita purchasing power, and electricity consumption have positive<br>relationship with deforestation rate; while inflation rate and poverty rate have a negative<br>relationship with deforestation rate. All factors were found to be significant and were used<br>for regression analysis. By considering the p-value at 5% level, the coefficient of<br>determination from regression analysis indicated that 87% of deforestation rate is caused<br>by explanatory variables captured in the model; and all explanatory variables had positive<br>impact on deforestation. Thus, it is suggested that policy and decision-making should link<br>with the country’s desire for economic growth and environmental management.<br><br></p> thadei sagamiko Nyimvua Shaban Mbare Cuthbert L. Nahonyo Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 2 Effect of Meteorological Elements on the Dynamics of Bacillary and Amoebic Dysentery Disease: A Mathematical Approach <p>Bacillary dysentery, commonly known as shigellosis, is a potentially perilous and<br>extremely contagious bacterial infection of the colon caused by—but not limited<br>to—bacteria shigella, bacillus, E. coli, Yersinia, and the parasite amoeba. This paper<br>formulates and analyses a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of<br>dysentery epidemic that incorporate the effects of weather variations. It examines<br>the stability of equilibria and compute the basic reproduction number that is<br>coupled with the time-periodic model, and establishes results on the threshold<br>dynamics. In the non-autonomous case, it investigates the disease extinction and<br>uniform persistence. Results suggest that the dynamics of bacillary dysentery is<br>appreciably affected by climate change, which also plays a significant role in<br>whittling the long-term dynamics of the epidemic.</p> furaha chuma Rigobert C. Ngeleja Triphonia Ngailo Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 2 Fatty Acids Composition of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) Seed Oil from Tanzania <p>Samples of baobab fruits from which oils were extracted were collected from Sandawi and<br>Chamwino villages in Dodoma region, Tanzania. The oil was extracted from the kernel powders<br>using n-hexane and the extracts were derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters, and then subjected<br>to GC and GC-MS analyses for fatty acids content. The physiochemical properties of the oil<br>indicated that baobab seed oil is suitable for soap-making and other cosmetics. The combined<br>GC and GC-MS results showed the existence of eight fatty acids, namely: palmitic acid (22.02%),<br>palmitoleic acid (1.87%), tariric acid (7.08%), elaidic acid (41.29%), oleic acid (35.72%), linoleic acid,<br>(27.80%), myristic acid (0.19%), and margaric acid (0.30%). The high content of monounsaturated<br>and polyunsaturated fatty acids (78.04%) compared to saturated fatty acid (22.51%) suggests that<br>baobab seed oil has a good potential to be useful as food oil.<br><br></p> James zacharia Sarah Lifa Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 9 2